Supply/Demand Basics

  • 3.1 MMT corn imports and 800 TMT barley imports in MY 2020. U.S. unable to export corn to Turkey due to GMO barriers.
  • 600 TMT of DDGS and 40 TMT of CGF imports in 2020 from the U.S.
  • Price sensitive market.

Country Overview

      • Turkey’s economic performance since 2000 has been impressive, leading to increased employment and incomes and making Turkey an upper-middle-income country.
      • Currency depreciation from TRY 4.6 per U.S. dollar in 2018 to TRY 7.8 in December 2020 increased input costs.
      • The number of Syrian refugees in Turkey started increasing towards the end of 2013 and grew steadily until early 2016. As of November 2020, about 3.6 million Syrian refugees were registered in the country.

Trade and Market Share Overview

  • Turkey’s total grains crop production in MY 2019/2020 is 34.5 MMT.
  • In 2020 corn was imported mainly from the Black Sea (Russia and Ukraine).
  • The U.S. market share on corn co-products declined during the last couple year, due to competition from neighboring countries (E.U and Ukraine) able to supply smaller vessels.
  • Turkey is a major force in international trade in processed products, well placed at the intersection of Europe and Asia to supply the big markets to its east with flour and import grain to supply its mills.

Policy Overview

  • A Biosafety Law in effect since September 26, 2010 bans imports of food and feed products containing biotech events not registered and approved by the Turkish Government. U.S. corn is not approved for import.
  • As of October 31, 2019, there are only 36 (10 soybean and 26 corn) events approved for feed use in Turkey. No events are approved for food use or cultivation.
  • The testing of imported products remains inconsistent and continues to be a considerable cost for importers.